A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

Abelson, Robert P., 207n.34, 208n.50

absence, data as, 89-93

abstraction of information, 18-19

Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences, 227

ada'web, 112

Adorno, Theodor, 202

Advanced Intelligent Information Retrieval System (AIIRS), 270

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 237

aesthetic common sense, 192, 193, 196

aesthetics: artificial intelligence and, 187-91; information and, 27-28; intersection of ethics, 142-43; social, 159-64; See also database aesthetics; dignity, aesthetics of; network aesthetics

Aesthetics of Care?, The (Menezes), 157

Agent Ruby (Hershman-Leeson), 249-51, 252

Agre, Philip E., 207n.41

Ahearn, John, 165

AI. See artificial intelligence (AI)

AIML (Artificial Identity Markup Language), 249

Albers, Joseph, 37n.20

algorithm(s): bird flocking, in ecosystm, 263-64; computer game, 42; in database as meta-narrative, 104, 105-6; data structure and, 41-44, 45; Kohonen self-organizing (Self-Organizing Map), 104, 245-46

Ali, Muhammad, 25

Alice in Wonderland, TextArc's reading of, 101-2

Amazon.com, 44

Amis, Martin, 75

Andrews, Larry, 181n.58

Andujar, Daniel Garcia, 113, 116, 120n.10

animal database, xviii

Anna Karenin Goes to Paradise (Lialina), 118

Another Day in Paradise (Vesna), 36n.15

Apollo (spacecraft), 30

apple metaphor, 72

Arabesque (Whitney), 53

Arabian Nights, 166; Medea Project: Theater for Incarcerated Women as contemporary, 167-68

Aragon, Louis, 89

architecture: absence in, 90; artists as "information architects," xiii-xiv, 28; discourse, xvii-xviii; recombinant, 140n.13; virtual, 135

archivist, artist as reliable, 118-19

Aristotle, 202

Aronowitz, Stanley, 177n.9

ARPANET, 237

Ars Electronica, 157

art: creative potential of biology, computer science, digital networking, and robotics to, 259; practice of database art, xi-xix; purpose of, to work against habitualization, 200

"Art and Social Change, U.S.A." (Olander and Owens), 164

art collection, xii-xiii

ArtCulture Resource Centre (Toronto), 238

Art House in Dublin, Bodies INCorporated exhibit at, 17

Artificial Identity Markup Language (AIML), 249

artificial intelligence (AI), xviii, 187-91: aesthetics and, 187-91; aesthetics of the uncanny and, 199-201; "aesthetic turn" in AI research, 190, 196, 197; behaviorism and, 188-89; common sense and, 192-93; cultural difference and, 197-98; cybernetics and, 189; early, 188; fears surrounding, 199; founders of field, 187; game, 216; "intelligent agents" approach to interface design and, 183; as Kantian endeavor, 190-91; mind-as-machine as central metaphor of, 198; new offshoots of, 198, 199-200; nonmilitary concerns and, 193-94; philosophical debate about, 196-97; strands of aesthetic AI research, 194-95; Turing's "imitation game" and, 198-99

Artificial Life, 178n.15

Artificial Staff, 271

Art Information Task Force (AITF), 120n.9

artist: as "information architects" using data as raw material, xiii-xiv, 28; as reliable archivist, 118-19

Artistic License project, 157, 158

Artlab 10 exhibition, 269

Artlab Canon, 269

art movements of twentieth century, photography and evolution of, 219

Artschwager, Richard, xii

Ascott, Roy, 134, 135, 141n.31

associations, commonsensical, 200

Atherton, James, 230n.12

Audio Microscope (Davis), 5

author: death of, 166-67; disappearance of author/observer, 146, 148; illusion of solitary, xvii

author function, 143-44, 148; supplanted by "subject function" in collaborative systems, 149

autopoetic systems, 146-48

avatars, 253



Bahktin, Mikhail, 146, 150, 178n.17

Bahktin circle, 150

Bal, Mieke, 46, 59n.11, 67, 84n.8

baroque storytelling, digression as form of, 91-92

Bars and String-Piece Columns (Pettway), 162

Barth, John, 75

Barthes, Roland, 48, 59n.14, 144, 177n.7

Bateson, Gregory, 229n.12

Baudelaire, Charles, xv

Beardsley, John, 180n.45

Beaudry, David, 21

beauty: approaches to the problem of, 143; of database, conception of, 150-51

Becher, Bernd and Hilla, 51

Becker, David, 106

Beckett, Samuel, 166

behavior-based AI, 195

behaviorism, artificial intelligence and, 188-89

Benford, Robert, 230n.12

Berge, Claude, 122, 139n.2

Berger, Theodore, 258

Berlin Wall, collapse of, xiii-xiv

Berners-Lee, Tim, 40

Bertillon, Alphonse, 116

biology: networking the biological, 253, 255-59; as new material and medium for traditional type of art practice, 157-59

biotechnologies, 253; See also digital implants

BitStreams (exhibition), 260, 264

Blair, David, 45

Blake, William, 32

Bleeding Through (Klein), xv-xvi, 89, 90, 91, 93

Blood Sugar (audio archive), 171, 172-74

Blume, Eugene, 37n.27

Bluthenthal, Ricky, 173, 181n.67

Bo, Feng Meng, 265

Bodies INCorporated (Vesna), 11, 13-18, 19-20, 36n.17; architecture, 14-16; body construction in, 13-14; deletion of bodies from, 14-16; exhibition in physical spaces, 16-18; logo, 13, 15

"Body and the Archive, The" (Sekula), 115

body construction, 13-14

body databases, 5-7

Body Missing (Frankel), xii-xiii, xxn.9

Boites-en-Valise (Duchamp), xii

Bond, A. H., 208n.55

Bonk, Ecke, 121, 139n.3

book, principles and logic of database applied to, 101-2

Bookchin, Natalie, 106

Bordwell, David, 58n.4

Borges, Jorge Luis, 27, 28, 44, 59n.8

Bourdon, David, xixn.7

Bourgeois, Louise, 108

Bowers, Harry, 36n.9

Bowker, Geoffrey C., 139n.1

brain implants, 258

Brecht, Bertolt, 93, 202

Broodthaers, Marcel, xii

Brook, Andrew, 206n.22

Brooks, Rodney, 207n.41, 208n.55

Brooks, Sawad, 117

browsers, Web, 99, 254

Buchloh, Benjamin, 209n.73

Building a Community of People with No Time (notime), 22, 23

Burgin, Victor, 8

Burroughs, William, 132, 140n.13

Burrows, Adrienne, 85n.21

Bush, Vannevar, 28, 30

Bush administration, 114

business, expert systems funded by, 193

butterflies, eyespot patterns in wings of, 156, 157-59

butterfly technology, 157

Byatt, A. S., 75



C5 (artist group), 116-17, 120

Cage, John, 26, 37n.20

camera, impact on development of painting, 216-19

camera obscuras, 216

Camillo, Giulio, xvii, 29

Canon Media Technology Laboratory, 271

Carbonell, Jaime, 208n.50

Carmack, John, 214-15

Carnivore (Radical Software Group), 97

carpal-tunnel syndrome, 259

Carroll, J.D., 208n.50

Carroll, Lewis, 131, 141n.24

Cartasia software, 270, 271

carte-de-visite photography, 216

Casa das Rosas (Sao Paulo), 255, 256

Casa Segura, 171, 173, 175, 176, 181n.65, 181n.68

Castle Wolfenstein (computer game), 214-15

catacombs, Paris, 151, 152-53

cataloguing systems, library, 29

Catalog (Whitney), 53

categorization, 26

categorization systems, 29-30

Cattelan, Maurizio, 112

Caygill, Howard, 206n.23

CD-ROMs, 40-41: Databank of the Everyday, 106; Legrady's interactive CD-ROM/installation Slippery Traces, 104-6

cellular automata, 147-48, 149; as computer scientist's counterpart to physicist's concept of "field," 147; as emergent systems, 147-48

Cellular Automata Machines: a New Environment for Modeling (Toffoli and Margolus), 147

censorship, 114

Central California Women's Facility (CCWF), 171

Cervantes, Miguel de, 52

Chakrasamvara (Tibetan sand mandala), 33-35

Chakra system, 20

chance methods, relevance of, 132

Change Engine in Polar, 269, 271

Chapman, David, 207n.41

Chronofiles (Fuller), 23-26, 32, 37n.20

Cimons, Marlene, 35n.2

cinema: computer filmmaking, pioneer of, 53; database cinema, 54-58; editing phase, 56-57, 69, 71, 73-75, 81; film using database as symbolic form, 69-70; interactive, 65; intersection between database and narrative in, xv, 54; linear structure, 64-65; Machinima films, 227-28; motivation in, 58n.4; production and postproduction in, 69, 71; sequential narrative of, 50; storage media supporting narrative imagination in, 51

cinema verite school (direct cinema), 74

classification, social, 168-70

client/server databases, 96

client-server relationship of data, 97-98

Clifford, James, 159, 180n.40, 180n.50

closed system, 145

Cocconi, Giuseppe, 31

Codd, E. F., 96

cognitive science, 189, 191, 197; See also artificial intelligence (AI)

Cohen, Janet, xvi, 112

Colby, Kenneth Mark, 197, 208n.52

Cold War, AI research after end of, 193-94

collaboration, quilts of Gee's Bend as result of, 160-63

collaborative systems, 148-50: development of collaborative tools and community networks, 168-73; as dialogic spaces, 150; rule-base of, 149; Venice as physical and historical, 154

collections, 180n.34; as narrative of mastery, 156-59; Nature Demiurge, 155-56

color as abstract narrative, Greenaway's use of, 56

combinatorics, 122

Comella, Rosemary, 93n.1

Common Gateway Interface (CGI), 36n.13

common sense: accumulation and transformation of, 186; aesthetic, 192, 193, 196; artificial intelligence and, 192-93; culturally dependent vs. culturally independent, 185-86; defining, 184-85; Kant and, 191-92; logical, 192, 193; moral, 192, 193; as a negotiated process, 196; user-friendly, commonsensical interface design, 183-87

community networks, development of, 168-73

composite data profile, 116

computational linguistics, 195

computational phenomenologists, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200

computer: body as extension of, 115; metaphors surrounding, 71-75; as perfect medium for database form, 52-53; as universal media machine, 43-44

computer age: database as center of creative process in, 45; database as new symbolic form of. See symbolic form, database as

computer filmmaking, 53

computer games and gaming, xvi, 43, 101; attention, time, and resources expended in relation to, 211-13; audience for, 211; connection to the military, 211-13; as narratives, 41-42; See also game engines as embedded systems

computerization: of culture, 43; of society, 111

computer language, 121

"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (Turing), 198

concrete: concretized bodies of Virtual Concrete, 9; Northridge Earthquake as inspiration for Virtual Concrete, 8

Condon, Brody, 265

configuration, 122; observation of, 123

connectionism, 195

Connolly, John, 79, 83

consciousness, critical, 228-29

constructed context, 139

constructionism, social, 179n.29

context: constructed, 139; development of, xiii; meaning and, 132-33

continuous differentiation, Nature Demiurge as database of, 155-56

convergence: cultural, 234; technological, 233-34

conversations, very large-scale (VLSC), 184, 186, 201, 203

Cook, Sarah, 119

Corbett, Carolyn, 81

Cosmic Web, The (Hayles), 135-36

Counter-Strike (computer game), 226-27, 265

Coyne, Richard, 207n.48

Cranston, Meg, 25, 37n.26

creativity: cut-and-paste as heart of, 74; editing as exercise of, 75

Crick, Francis, 4

Crime Archives, The (Web site), 16

criminal surveillance system, role of photographic archives in normalization of, 115-16

Critical Art Ensemble, 5, 35n.3, 140n.13

critical consciousness, developing, 228-29

Critiques (Kant), 190

Croteau, David, 230n.12

cultural continuity, quilts of Gee's Bend as, 161

cultural convergence, 234

cultural democracy: building social and technological infrastructures for, 175-76; doing, 165-66; practical ethics as central to, 173-74

culturally-dependent/culturally-independent division of common sense, 185-86

culture: artificial intelligence and cultural difference, 197-98; art reflecting our cultural obsessions, 249, 252; computerization of, 43; cross-cultural success of computer games, 222; cultural toolkit as database of game player, 220-21, 222; database as meta-narrative and cultural form, 98-108

currency volatility, ecosystm to represent global, 260-68

CU-SeeME, 9, 36n.12, 254

customization of games, 226-28

cut-and-paste metaphor, 72-75: skills transferable from one medium to another and, 74-75

Cutler, Randy Lee, 234, 242n.4

cutting in film editing, 73-75

cut-up, recipe method, relevance of, 131-33

"Cyberfeminism" (Paterson), 233

cybernetics: artificial intelligence (AI) and, 189; behaviorism vs., 189

cyber-polysemic space, 138-39

CYC, 194



Dada manifeste sur l'amour faible et l'amour amer (Tzara), 131

d'Alembert, Jean le Rond, 29, 207n.35

Daniel, Sharon, xvii, 181n.64

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Picasso), 218

Dartmouth College conference on AI (1956), 187

data: as absence, 89-93; conversion into novel, 92-93; ideal system for "layering" techniques, 92-93; patterns mined from, 142; as something given, 142-43, 148; sorting and filtering and, 70-73

Databank of the Everyday, The (Bookchin), 106

database(s), 65-68: anatomy of, 115-17; awareness of ourselves as, xiii; basic criteria of, 66; body, 5-7; from the "bottom up," 33; conception of "beauty" of, 150-51; defined, 39; in game engine's rendering of game world, 219-20; of game player, 220-21; human being added to (via Time Capsule), 256; identity, 26-27; of knowledge, libraries as, 27-31; as language of computer age, xiv; larger meaning contained in, 68; as meta-narrative and cultural form, 98-108; narrative and, xv-xvi, 44-47, 67-68, 100-101; nested subfields of, 151; network, 96; redistribution of weight in database narrative opposition by new media, 48-51; as region of alternative story constructs, 69-70, 71; of the self, x; semiotics of, 47-51; sorting and filtering data for, 70-73; spatialized, 55; structure of, 150-51; as system, 95-98; time and, 21-22; types of, 39, 96

database aesthetics, 150-51: aesthetics of dominance and, 158; combining social aesthetics with, 168-73; conditions of possibility of, 151, 159; "found" systems as external evidence of and extended context for, 151-56; as important cultural narrative, 108; as new form for dialectical aesthetics, 202-3

database archive, Pockets Full of Memories as, 243-48

database art, practice of, xi-xix

database cinema, 54-58: See also cinema

database complex, 51-53

database imaginary, 110-20: anatomy of the database, 115-17; artist as reliable archivist, 118-19; dark side of, 114; data stories, 117-18; reversal of the panopticon, 113-14

database logic, 39-41: imposed onto traditional forms of narrative, 106

data bodies, 114-15

data indexing, 44

Datamining Bodies (Vesna), 18-21, 22

data models, 96-97

data-packet flow in processes of Polar, experience of, 275-76

data stories, 117-18

data storytelling, era of, 86-94

data structure: algorithm and, 41-44, 45; examples of, 43

Davis, Angela, 181n.61

Davis, Joe, 5, 35n.3

DCS1000 software, 97

death: in relation to technology, 16; writing as an effort to elude, 166-67

Deep Storage (exhibition), xixn.3

de Jong, Gerald, 19

de Kooning, Willem, 162

De Landa, Manuel, 112, 204, 210n.77

Deleuze, Gilles, xviii, 127, 128-29, 140n.17, 141n.29, 190, 196, 203-4, 206n.19, 209n.66, 210n.75, 210n.78

demiurge, 155; Nature Demiurge, 155-56

democracy, cultural. See cultural democracy

Descartes, Rene, 74, 190

design process, new media, 49

desktop, the, 71-73

determinant judgment, 192

dialectical aesthetics, database aesthetics as new form for, 202-3

dialectics, theories of, 202

dialogism, 146; Bahktin's theory of, 150, 179n.29; evolution and displacement as fundamental to, 150

Diamond, Hugh, 62, 63, 78, 79-83

Diderot, Denis, 29, 51, 207n.35

Dietrich, Frank, 59n.20

Dietz, Steve, xvi-xvii, 252n.2

digital implants, 253; digital memory inside human body, 255-57; future of, 257-59; Time Capsule, xvii, xviii, 27, 114-15, 253, 255-57, 259

digital technology, impact on libraries and knowledge dissemination, 29-30

digitizing craze, 43-44

dignity, aesthetics of, 164-73: activist, 168-74, 177; combining database aesthetics with social aesthetics, 168-73; paradigm shift from aesthetics of object to, 167-68; social aesthetics and, 159-64

digression as form of Baroque storytelling, 91-92

DiNA (Hershman-Leeson), 249, 252

direct cinema (cinema verite school), 74

discourse architecture, xvii-xviii

Disderi, Andre Adolphe, 216

Disney, 27

Disseminet (Stryker and Brooks), 117-18

distributed AI, 195

Djokic, Danijela, 248n.1

DNA: discovery of structure of, 4; as example of database aesthetics, 4

DNA fingerprint, 4-5

DNA sequence, completion of human, 3-4

documentary and fiction, disappearing distinction between, 75-83, 84

Documenta XI, 108

Do-It-Yourself technology, 169

dominance, ethics of, 156-59

Doom and Doom III (computer games), 214, 226

Dortmund, Germany, Datamining Bodies project for, 18-21

Dove, Lisa, 78

Draughtsman's Contract (film), 55

Dreifus, Claudia, 205n.3

Dreyfus, Hubert L., 196, 207n.33, 207n.44-45

Duchamp, Marcel, xii, xixn.5, 27, 132, 179n.31

Dymaxion Index (Fuller), 24, 37n.20

dynamic systems, 145



Eco, Umberto, 123, 140n.8

economics of production, lack of structural experimentation in game engines and, 224-25

ecosystm (Klima), aesthetics of, xix, 99, 100, 260-68: catalogue entry for, 261; confusion around title, 260-61; dimensions of, 261-62; geometric construction of, 266-67; inner workings of, 262-63; medium of, 261; weather conditions added to, 267-68

Edelman, G. M., 141n.35

Edison, Thomas, 251

editing, film, 56-57, 69; changes in tools and, 71; cutting in, 73-75; digital editing software, 73

Edwards, Paul, 209n.68

effects: in Vertov's film, 58; in Whitney's films, 53

effects-driven aesthetics of computerized visual culture, 53

ego.com, 157

Eighth Day (Kac), 5

Eigler, Don, 7

Eisenstein, Sergei, 140n.13, 202, 209n.70

Elashoff, David, 106, 107

Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3), 216, 223

Ellis, Jim, 237

embedded systems, game engines as. See game engines as embedded systems

emergence, 245

emergent dialogism, 146

emergent systems, 147-48: rule-based, 149

Enclued software, 270, 271

encryption software, 8

Encyclopediaists, 207n.35; neo-Encyclopediaists, 194-95, 196

encyclopedias, 51-52, 58n.3

energy centers, Eastern representations of, 20

Engberg, Andreas, 248n.1

enhanced realism, 216

Erlich, Victor, 209n.71

ethics: aesthetics and, 142-43; of dominance, 156-59; political subtext of digital design and, 176; practical, 173-75

eugenics, 115, 116

Every Shot Every Episode (McCoy and McCoy), 102-3

Evolutionary Architecture, An (Frazer), 135

Ewers, Hanns Heinz, 209n.60

exhibition of Bodies INCorporated in physical space, 16-18

existential phenomenology, 196

Expanded Cinema (Youngblood), 53

expert systems, 193

Exquisite Mechanism of Shivers, The, 133

extraterrestrial signals, search for, 31

eyespot patterns in wings of butterflies, 156, 157-59

Face of Our Time (Sander), 51

Fagin, Ronald, 208n.55

faktura, 202, 209n.73

Falls, The (film), 55

Fatwah on Salman Rushdie, 64

fear(s): of new technologies, sources of artists', xiii; surrounding artificial intelligence, 199; of uncanny aesthetics, 199-201

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 4-5

feedback, AI's neglect of analysis of, 189

Feigenbaum, Edward A., 207n.32

Feinberg, Jonathan, 106, 107

felt meaning, 132

Fernezelyi, Marton, 248n.1

Feynman, Richard P., 38n.33

fiction and nonfiction, challenges to split between, 75-83, 84

field(s): defined, 145; of meaning, 133, 134-36; uncertainty, 145-46

Fielding, Henry, 91, 92, 94n.6

Fields, Kenneth, 36n.11, 36n.14

Figuratively Speaking (exhibition), 36

File Room, The (Muntadas), xii, xvi-xvii, 113-14, 117

film editing, 56-57, 69; changes in tools and, 81; cutting in, 73-75; digital editing software, 73

filmmaking, computer, 53; Machinima films, 227-28; See also cinema

filtering data, 70-73

"first-person shooter" game genre, 214-15, 224

Fisher, Scott, 45

flight, lines of, 128, 129-30

Flores, Fernando, 206n.11, 208, 208n.55

Fluidiom Project, 19

folksonomic (folk + Taxonomy) classification, 168-70

Ford, Kenneth, 209n.63

"formula" or "recipe" method, relevance of, 131-33

Foster, Hal, 110, 120n.2

Foucault, Michel, xvii, 143-44, 148, 149, 166, 177, 177n.4, 181n.56, 203

found objects, 179n.31

found systems, 151-56: master narratives implicit in origin of, 159; Nature Demiurge as, 155-56, 180n.34; Paris catacombs as, 151, 152-53; Sainte-Chapelle as, 151, 153-54, 179n.32; Venice as, 154-55

Fowler, Roger, 186, 205n.4

Fox, Les, 36n.9

Fraden, Rena, 181n.61

frame problem in AI, 189, 192

frames of reference, 221; game engines and, 221-23

Frames (Weinbren), 78, 79-83

frame tale, 166

Frame Theory, 221

Frampton, Hollis, 69-70, 75-76, 84n.13, 85n.16

Frank, Keith, xvi, 112

Frankel, Vera, xii-xiii, xxn.9

Franklin, Rosalind, 4

Frazer, John, 135, 141n.33

Freedom Quilting Bee, 160

Freehand system, 258

Freitas, Nathan, 36n.14

Freud, Sigmund, 199, 208n.54, 209n.61

Frye, Northrop, 238

Fuller, Allegra, 23

Fuller, Matthew, xvi, 99

Fuller, R. Buckminster, 19, 23-26, 37n.20, 37n.21, 37n.25



Galton, Francis, 116, 117

game AI, 216

Game Developers Conference (GDC), 215

game engines as embedded systems, xviii, 211-30: critical consciousness, developing, 228-29; cross-cultural success of particular game and, 222; database interfaces, 219-21; engines of creation, 214-15; explaining game engines, 214; frames of reference and, 221-23; functional and aesthetic resemblance between titles using 3D engines, 223-25; game modding and, 226-28; Machinima productions, 227-28; next frontier for game engines, 215; rendering and Holy Grail of realism, 215-19; starting points, 211-13; See also computer games and gaming

GameSpy, 214

Gamson, William A., 230n.12

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel, xv, 89, 93n.4

Gardner, Howard, 206n.7

Gardner, Martin, 140n.9

Gasser, Les, 207n.42, 208n.55

Gaugusch, Andrea, 140n.15

Gautier, Theophile, 89, 93n.3

Gee's Bend, Alabama, quilts of, 160-63, 164

Gee's Bend: The Women and Their Quilts (Marzio), 161-62

Gehry, Frank, 28

gender difference, Turing's "imitation game" of, 198-99

Gendlin, E. T., 132, 141n.26

Genentech, 5

General Problem Solver (GPS), 189

generic convention, lack of structural experimentation in game engines and, 224

genetic engineering, 253

genome, mapping of, 3-4

Genova, Judith, 209n.58

GenTerra (Critical Art Ensemble), 5

George, Rachel Carey, 163

Gimzewski, James, 32, 33, 38n.33

Goffman, Erving, 230n.12

Goldstein, Ira P., 207n.31

Golem, 250-51

Goodyear, A. Conger, 119

Graetz, J. M., 229n.2

Gralla, E. B., 38n.33

Gramsci, Antonio, 186, 205n.5

graphic design of Pockets Full of Memories, 246-47

Great Depression, 26

Greeks, database and narrative forms used by ancient, 51

Greenaway, Peter, 54-56, 59n.22, 59n.23

Green Box, The (Duchamp), xii, xixn.5

Greenspun, Philip, 229n.9

Grosz, Barbara, 208n.55

Grosz, Elizabeth A., 208n.54

Grothmaak, Martin, 248n.1

Guatemala, "The Disappeared" in, 117

Guattari, Felix, 127, 128-29, 140n.17, 141n.29, 203-4, 209n.66, 210n.75

Guermantes Way, The (Proust), 89

Guggenheim Bilbao, movement through, 28

Guha, R., 207n.36

Guthrie, Louise M, 207n.38

Gysin, Brion, 140n.13



habitualization, purpose of art to work against, 200

Hadler, Simon, 180n.36

Half-Life (computer game), 226-27

Hall, Harrison, 207, 207n.33, 207n.45

Hall, Stuart, 206n.6

Halpern, J. Y., 208n.55

Hamilton, Richard, 121, 139n.3

Hansen, Mark, x, xixn.1, 141n.30

harm reduction, 173, 175

Haroun and the Sea of Stories (Rushdie), xv, 61-64

Harris, Roy, 137

Harwood, Graham, 45, 59n.10

Hauben, Michael, 242n.8

Hauben, Ronda, 242n.8

Hayes, Patrick, 209n.63

Hayles, N. Katherine, 135-36, 141n.34, 142, 164, 177n.2, 178n.16, 181n.54

Hegel, G.W.F., 202

Heidegger, Martin, xviii, 193, 195, 196, 197, 207n.48

Heims, Steve, 206n.15

Heisenberg, Werner, 145, 178n.12; uncertainty principle, 145, 178n.12, 178n.13

HEPPAC (HIV Education and Prevention Program of Alameda County), 171-73, 181n.65, 182n.68

Hershman-Leeson, Lynn, xviii, 99, 109n.6; Agent Ruby, 249-51, 252; DiNA, 249, 252; Synthia Stock Ticker, 99, 249, 251-52

"hidden variable" hypothesis, 178n.12, 178n.13

hierarchical databases, 39, 96

Higgins, Dick, 140n.7

Hill, Gary, 76-77, 85n.17

hippocampus, microchip reproducing neural activity of, 258

historical models, absence in, 90

Hitler, Adolf, xii-xiii

HIV Education and Prevention Program of Alameda County (HEPPAC), 171-73, 181n.65, 182n.68

Hochberg, Julian, 230n.12

Hodges, Andrew, 208n.57

Hoffmann, E. T A., 209n.60

Hollywood Stock Exchange, 236

Homer, 51, 52, 117

Honkela, Timo, 248n.1, 248n.2

Hooked (Shavelson), 174

Hopeful Monsters (Mosley), 145

Horn, Stacey, 233

How I Learned (McCoy and McCoy), 102-4

Hoynes, William, 230n.12

http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 254

Hubris Inc., 157

Huhtamo, Erkki, 126

human-computer interface, inversion of, 115

Human Genome Project, 5, 7, 20, 35n.1

Hunter, Sam, 59n.19

Husserl, Edmund, xviii, 195, 196, 197

hyper-narrative, 46

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http), 254



ICC in Tokyo, 130

ICT (Institute for Creative Technologies), 213

IDE (Integrated Development Environment), 261

identity: Internet-bred construction of, 249-51; online, 11

identity databases, 26-27

ideology, 221

ID software, 226

Iliad (Homer), 117

Ilpo, Koskinen, 248n.2

image, visual languages supported by composite organization of, 47-48

image database, interface to, 45

imaginary, database. See database imaginary

imitation game, Turing's, 198-99: woman's role in, 199

immersive training simulation, 213

Impermanence Agent, The (Waldrop-Fruin), 118

informatics: as infrastructure, 164-65; materiality of, 142, 144, 148, 165-66, 174, 176

information: abstraction of, 18-19; aesthetics and, 27-28; humans perceived as, 7

"information architects," artists as, xiii-xiv, 28

information overflow, dealing with, ix-x, 22

information overload, xiii, 28-29

infrastructures for cultural democracy, 175-76

in-game photo realism, 216

Ingber, Donald, 19, 36n.18

injection drug users, giving voice to, 171-76

insects of Nature Demiurge exhibit, 155-56

Institute for Creative Technologies (ICT), 213

Integrated Development Environment (IDE), 261

Integrational Linguistics, 137, 138

"intelligent agents" approach to interface design, 183

interactive cinema, 65

interactive interfaces, 49-50

interactive narrative, 46

interactivity: expressive potential to, 68-69, 70; viewer as user and, 70

interface(s): creating work in new media as construction of, 45-46; game engine as database interface, 219-21; "intelligent agents" approach to design of, 183; interactive, 49-50; physical trauma created by standardization of, 259; of Pockets Full of Memories, 246-47; Polar as tactile matrix, 269-77; user-friendly, commonsensical design, 183-87

Interface Culture (Johnson), 110-11

Internet: accessibility of Pockets Full of Memories on, 246; art projects questioning conventions of browsers, 99; as effective cultural force, 253-55; shift to entertainment and commercial applications, 238; user-friendly, commonsensical interface design, 183-87; as "the Web," 254

Internet-bred construction of identity, 249-51

interstellar communications, 31

intersubjective communication, mapping as, 170

Ippolito, Jon, xvi, 112

I & Society, ix

Ivekovic, Sanja, 108



Jacobs, P., 35n.2

Jacobus, John, 59n.19

Jameson, Fredric, 48, 59n.13, 154, 179n.33, 209n.71, 209n.72

Jeong, Allan, 178n.29

Jeremijenko, Natalie, 5, 35n.3

Jevbratt, Lisa, 116

Johnson, Mark, 71, 84n.14

Johnson, Steven, 110-11, 120n.3

Johnston, Hank, 230n.13

Jones, Rhodessa, 167, 177

Joyce, James, 89, 92

Joyce, Michael, 140n.10

joystick, 212

"Junk DNA," 4

Justice Now, 171



Kac, Eduardo, xvii, xviii, 5, 120n.13; Time Capsule, xvii, xviii, 27, 114-15, 253, 255-57, 255-59, 259

Kahn, Douglas, 132, 140n.13

Kahn, Paul, 140n.10

Kant, Immanuel, xviii, 190-92, 196, 197, 202, 206n.21; artificial intelligence as Kantian endeavor, 190-91; common sense and, 191-92; on three cognitive faculties, 191-92

Kasprzyk, Alexander Mieczyslaw, 147

Katha Sarat Sagara, 65

Katha Sarat Sagara, 84n.2

Kaufman, Mikhail, 56, 59n.25

Kawara, On, 108

Kee, Steve, 239

Kelso, J. A. Scott, 141n.35

Kent, Steven L., 214, 215, 229n.5

Kerchache, Anne, 151, 155

Kerchache, Jacques, 151, 155, 180n.34

Kiendl, Anthony, 119

kino-eye, 58

Kippenberger, Martin, xii

Klein, Norman M., xv-xvi, 93n.1

Klima, John, xviii-xix, 109n.6; aesthetics of ecosystm, xix, 99, 100, 260-68

Knode, Marilu, 36n.7

knowledge: computing metaphors and, 72; digital reorganization of, 28; libraries as databases of, 27-31

Kohonen Self-Organizing Map, 104, 245-46

Korzybski, Alfred, 234, 242n.5

Koskenniemi, Timo, 248n.1

Kramer, Jane, 165

Kratky, Andreas, 93n.1

Krauss, Rosalind, 52, 59n.18

Kristeva, Julia, 199, 209n.61

Kroker, Arthur, 140n.13

Kubrick, Stanley, 104

"Kuleshov effect," 59n.26



Lakoff, George, 71, 84n.14

Landow, George, 178n.17

language games, problems of philosophy as, 208n.57

Language of New Media (Manovich), xiv-xv

LAPD (Los Angeles Poverty Department), 168

Laurel, Brenda, 183, 233

Lawler, Louise, xii

Leandre, Joan, 265

legal issues attached to navigation through information space, 13

Legible City (Shaw), 45

Legrady, George, xviii, 104-6: Pockets Fill of Memories, xviii, 104, 105, 243-48

Leippe, Michael R., 230n.12

Lem, Stanislaw, xix, xxn.11, 269

Lenat, Douglas, 207n.36

Levin, Golan, 106-8

Levi-Strauss, Claude, 180n.34

Levy, Steven, 178n.15

Lewitt, Sol, 52-53

lexicography, 195

Lialina, Olia, 118, 120n.19

libraries, as databases of knowledge, 27-31

Library, The (Paterson), 241

Library of Alexandria, 29

Library of Babel (Borges), 28

life-sharing project, 98

Limbo 3D space in Bodies INCorporated, 13, 14

LimeWire, 254

linear narrative, 46, 64-65

linear thinking, tyranny of, xv

lines of flight, concept of, 128, 129-30

linguistics: computational, 195; integrational, 137, 138; linguistic description of Pockets Full of Memories, 246; potentials of new, 136-37

Lisle, Leconte de, 131

Listening Post (database), xixn.1

Lodder, Christina, 209n.73

logic: of algorithm, 42; database, 39-41, 106

logical common sense, 192, 193

Logic of Sense (Deleuze), 204

Lorensen, William E., 10

Los Angeles Northridge Earthquake in 1994, 8

Los Angeles Poverty Department (LAPD), 168

Louis (Louis IX), Saint, 179n.32

Lyotard, Jean-Francois, 40, 58n.2, 190, 192, 196, 206n.20, 207n.29



McAllister, Jackie, xixn.4

McCarthy, John, 192, 194, 207n.30

McClelland, James L., 207n.40

McCorduck, Pamela, 206n.10, 207n.32

McCoy, Jennifer and Kevin, 102-4

McCullaugh, Jim, 59n.5

McGough, Laura, 233, 241n.1

McGowan, Chris, 59n.5

McGroddy, Kelly, 7

machinic assemblage, concept of, 129

Machinima, 227-28

McKinley, Ryan, 114, 120n.12

McLuhan, Marshall, 28, 37n.28

Mademoiselle de Maupin (Gautier), 89

Maes, Pattie, 208n.55

Mallarme, Stephane, 123, 139n.6

Malpede, John, 168

mandala, Tibetan sand, 33-35

Mandell, Arnold J., 141n.35

Manovich, Lev, xiv-xv, xvi, 65-68, 69, 84n.3, 84n.9, 92, 94n.7, 97, 100, 108n.2, 119

Man with a Movie Camera (film), 56, 69; catalog of film techniques contained within, 57-58; hierarchy of levels in, 57

map, absence in, 90

Map of Market (Wattenberg), 99

mapping, 170

Marcus, George, 159, 180n.40

Margolus, Norman, 147, 178n.18

markedness, theory of, 59n.12

Marketplace (Bodies INCorporated), 17-18

Martins, J., 206n.17

Marx, Karl, 202, 209n.69

Marzio, Peter, 161-62, 180n.46

Massively Multiuser Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG), 224, 225

Massumi, Brian, 134, 141n.32, 204, 210n.76

mastery, narrative of, 156-59

materiality of informatics, 142, 144, 148, 174, 176; doing cultural democracy in context of, 165-66

Matrix of Conversation Maps: A Visualization of Network Aesthetics, A (Sack), 184

Matta-Clark, Gordon, 99

Maturana, Humberto R., 146, 178n.16

May, Gideon, 126, 134

MBone, 254

Meadows, Mark, 37n.30

meaning: context and, 132-33; fields of, 133, 134-36

Medea Project: Theater for Incarcerated Women, 167-68, 181n.58, 182n.71

media, role of, 206n.6; See also new media

Mediamatic Journal, 43-44

medical world, unemotional databasing practice of, 6

medium, senses absent from, 90-91

medium specificity, modernist notion of, 54

Melville, Herman, 102, 103

Memex (Bush), 28

memory: co-presence of lived memories and artificial memories within us, 257; digital memory inside human body, 255-57; memory archives, databases and bodies as, xvii

Memory Theater (Camillo), xvii, xxn.10, 29

Menagerie (Fisher), 45

Menezes, Marta de, 156-59, 180n.36-37

Menil, John and Dominique de, xii

metalanguage, 59n.27

meta-narratives and cultural form, database as, 98-108

metaphorology, 71

metaphors surrounding computing, 71-75

Metaphors We Live by (Lakoff and Johnson), 71

metatext, 57, 60n.27

metaworks, creation of, xiii

Metz, Christian, 51, 59n.17

Michelson, Annette, 57

microchips, implanted, 255-59: liberating effects of, 258; See also Time Capsule (Kac)

Microvenus (Davis), 5

military, connection of computer gaming to, 211-13

Millennium Film Journal, xv

Minc, Alain, 111, 120n.5

minimalism, 52-53

Minsky, Marvin, 184-85, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 207n.30, 208n.53

Mirapaul, Matt, 233, 241n.1

Mitchell, William, 140n.13

MIT Tech Model Railroad Club, 212

MMORPG (Massively Multiuser Online Role-Playing Games), 224, 225

Moby Dick (Melville), TextArc's reading of, 102, 103

modding, game, 226-28

modernist-MTV montage, 47

Mohr, Manfred, 53

montage, 47

MOOs (Multiuser Object-Oriented Domains), 224

moral common sense, 192, 193

morphing, 77

Morris, Desmond, 233

Morrison, Philip, 31

Moscow WWWArt Centre, 45

Moses, Y., 208n.55

Mosley, Nicholas, 145, 159, 177n.10, 180n.41

motivation in cinema, 58n.4

Motte, Warren F., 139n.4

MUDs (Multi-User Dungeons or Domains), 224

multi-agent systems, 195, 208n.55

multilinearity, 75; examples of, 75-79

multilinear narrative structure, 64

Muntadas, Antonio, xii, xvi-xvii, 113-14, 120n.11

Museum Circle, The (Cage), 26

Museum of Modern Art, 118

museums: categorizing systems of, 29; erosion of boundaries between libraries and, 30; logistics of collection and display, xi-xii; university, 37n.31; virtual, 40

mutability of sensed time, 130-31



Nake, Frieder, 53

nanomandala, 34, 35

Napster, 254

narrative: computer games as, 41-42; criteria of, 46; database and, xv-xvi, 44-47, 67-68, 100-101; desire for new kinds of, 54; discourse architecture and, xviii; highlighting of structural elements in construction of, 101-4; interactive, 46; linear, 46, 64-65; of mastery, 156-59; multilinear structure, 64; persistence of character requirement of, 77; redistribution of weight in database narrative opposition by new media, 48-51; shape imposed on reality by, 84

NASA, 30-31

National DNA Index System, 5

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 5-6

nature: construction of Venice as expression of power over, 155; Nature Demiurge connecting classification and dominance of, 155-56

Nature Demiurge, 155-56, 180n.34

Nature? project, 156-59

navigation, aesthetics of, xi

Necropolis space in Bodies INCorporated, 14-16, 20

needle-exchange programs, 171, 173-75, 181n.68

Need-X-Change (Daniel), 168, 171, 172-73, 176, 181n.65, 182n.68

Negroponte, Nicholas, 205n.2

Nelson, Ted, 28

neo-Encyclopediaists, 194-95, 196

net.art gesture, 113

netomat, 99

network aesthetics, 183-210: focus of, 203; Kant and common sense, 191-92; after the uncanny and commonsensical, 201-4; user-friendly, commonsensical interface design, 183-87; See also artificial intelligence (AI)

network-based artworks, xvi

network databases, 96

networked information spaces, tensegrity system applied to, 19

networking the biological, 253, 255-59

networks, development of community, 168-73

Neumaier, Otto, 208n.57

neural nets, 195

NeuroControl, 258

neuroprosthesis, 258

Newell, Alan, 189, 206n.16

Newman, Barnett, 110

new media: databases underlying new media objects, 47; design process, 49; general principle of, 42; hierarchy of levels in objects, 57; interface separated from content of work in, 45-46; language-like sequencing in, 50-51; redistribution of weight in database narrative opposition by, 48-51; variability of, 45-46

Nicolaes Ruts (Rembrandt), 217

Nideffer, Robert, xvii, xviii, 36n.14

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 40, 88, 143

9/11 stories and images, 68

Noguchi, Isamu, 37n.20

nonlinear system of accessing information, 30

nonlinear thinking, xv

Non-Player Characters (NPCs), 216

Nora, Simon, 111, 120n.5

Northridge Earthquake, communication during, 8

(nostalgia) (film), 75-76, 77

notime (Building a Community of People with No Time), 22, 23

NTT Intercommunications Center, 1999 Biennale of, 79

numbers as narrative shell, Greenaway's use of, 55-56

Nyce, James M., 140n.10



objective approach to problem of beauty, 143

object-oriented databases, 96

object-oriented programming paradigm, 59n.6

observer and observation: incorporation into system, 146, 148; observation of configurations, 123

Obsessive Becoming (film), 77-79

Ocean of Streams of Story, 61, 65, 66; as database, xv, xix, 66; as virtual space, 68-69

Olander, William, 164, 181n.53

Olivia, Pamela, 230n.13

100 Objects to Represent the World (installation), 55

One Hundred Years of Solitude (Garcia Marquez), xv, 89

One Million Years (Kawara), 108

One Tree (Jeremijenko), 5

Ong, Walter, 117

online identity, 11

Open Government Information Awareness project (McKinley), 114

Open Source community, 30, 38n.32

open source movement, 98

open system, 145

open work, 123

Oracle 8i, 44

oriented databases, 39

"Other Criteria" (Steinberg), 111

Owens, Craig, 164



Paik, Nam June, 110, 119n.1

Palabras- (Daniel), 168-70, 173

Paley, W. Bradford, 101-2, 103

Panofsky, Erwin, 40

panoptic gaze, reversal of, 113-14

paradigm and syntagm, semiological theory of, 48-51, 57

Paris catacombs as found system, 151, 152-53

Paris Peasant (Aragon), 89

participant as subject: asserting place of, 166-67; role of, 167-68

participatory generation of media environments, ongoing, 130

Pascoe, David, 59n.23

passive-active binary categories, 43

patent on gene, 5

Paterson, Nancy, 109n.6, 242n.2, 242n.7; Stock Market Skirt, xviii, 99, 233-42

patterns mined from data, 142

Paul, Christiane, xvi, xviii

Pavic, Milorad, 75

peer-to-peer relationship of data, 97-98

Peljhan, Marko, xix; Polar, xix, 269-77

Pelling, Andrew, 33, 38n.33

Pencil of Nature (Talbot), 51

Pentland, Sandy, 236, 242n.6

Permutations (Whitney), 53

Peterson, Elmer, 141n.23

Pettway, Allie, 161, 180n.48

Pettway, Arlonzia, 161, 180n.47

Pettway, Jennie, 161

Pettway, Jessie T., 162

PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) encryption software, 8

phenomenologists, computations, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200

Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein), 138

photography: carte-de-visite, 216; ideological circularity of, 80; impact on development of painting, 216-19; as mode of erasure, 89; role of photographic archives in normalization of criminal surveillance system, 115-16; viewer as photographer, 79, 83

photorealist images, 47-48

physical-digital linkage, 133-34

physics, quantum, 145

Piaget, Jean, 230n.12

Picasso, Pablo, 218

Plass, Jan, 36n.11

Plato, 202

Platoni, Kyra, 181n.67

player as integral part of game engine, 219; See also computer games and gaming; game engines as embedded systems

Pockets Full of Memories (PFOM) (Legrady), xviii, 104, 105, 243-48: future exhibitions and next-step developments, 247; ordering data and SOM algorithm, 104, 245-46; semantic meaning and linguistic description, 246; visual identity and graphic and interface design, 246-47

Poe, Edgar Allan, 25, 89

Poeta Fit, non Nascitur (Carroll), 131

Poetics, Recombinant. See Recombinant Poetics

point-and-click technique, 68-70

Polar Engine, 269, 271

Polar (Peljhan), xix, 269-77: experience flow, 273-77; hardware systems, 272-73; personnel, 276; project team, 276-77; software systems, 270-71; space, 270

Pollack, Barbara, 266, 268n.3

Pollock, Jackson, 162

Poly-Sensing Environment and Object-Based Emergent Intention Matrix: Toward an Integrated Physical/Augmented Reality Space, The (Seaman, Verbauwhede, and Hansen), 141n.30

pornographic Web sites, 44

Portrait of Artist as a Young Machine (exhibition), 238

Poster, Mark, ix

Postmodern Condition (Lyotard), 40

poststructuralism, 190

practical ethics, 173-75

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption software, 8

Principles of Combinatorics (Berge), 122

prisoners: Media Project: Theater for Incarcerated Women, 167-68, 181n.58, 182n.71; Public Secrets to give voice to, 171-72, 173

Projektriangle, 246-47, 248n.1

Prospero's Books (film), 54-55

Proust, Marcel, 89

psychological condition, database complex as, 52-53

Public Secrets (Daniel), 168, 171-72, 173

Pulse 3D Veeper System, 252



Quake (computer game), 215, 226

Quake II Arena, 265

Quake II for You, 265

quantum physics, 145

Quiccheberg, Samuel, 29, 37n.29

quilts of Gee's Bend, 160-63, 164



R. Buckminster Fuller Archive, 37n.20

Radical Software Group (RSG), xvi, 97

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), 27

Rajchman, John, 204-5, 210n.79

Rank, Otto, 209n.60

realism, rendering and Holy Grail of, 215-19

rearrangement, construction as, 74

"recipe" or "formula" method, relevance of, 131-33

recombinant architecture, 140n.13

"recombinant music" mix, 126

Recombinant Poetics, 121-41: attributes, 124-25; memory theaters and association, 123-24; See also World Generator/The Engine of Desire, The (Seaman and May)

reconstructive concept of cutting in editing, 74

Reeves, Dan, 77-79, 85n.18

reflective judgment, Kant's theories of, 192, 196

Rehearsal of Memory (Harwood), 45

relational databases, 96; as organizational model, 108

Rembrandt Van Rijn, 217

rendering, game engines and realism of, 215-19

rendering pass, 215

Resnick, Mitchel, 178n.15

resonant meaning, 128

reversal of panoptic gaze, 113-14

Reynolds, Craig, 263, 268n.2

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), 27

rhizomes, 128-29, 203, 204

Rich, Ruby B., 252n.1

Rickels, Laurence, 20, 21, 37n.19

Rinder, Larry, 260

Road to Victory (Wilson), 118-19

Roberts, R. Bruce, 207n.31

Robertson, Bruce, 37n.30

Roosevelt, Franklin, 26

Rubin, Ben, xixn.1

rules as language or narrative of computer game, 221

Rumelhart, David E., 207n.40

Rushdie, Salman, xv, 61-64, 66, 68, 69, 70, 75, 84n.1

Russian Constructivists, 202



Saarikko, Petri, 248n.1

Sack, Warren, xvii, xvii-xviii, 206n.21, 209n.58, 209n.67

Sainte-Chapelle, stained-glass windows of, 151, 153-54, 179n.32

Sakari, Karvonen, 248n.2

Saltz, Jerry, 267, 268n.5

Samaras, Connie, 16

Sander, August, 51

sand mandala, Tibetan, 33-35

San Francisco Art Institute, 17

Santa Barbara Museum, 16

Sasson, Theodore, 230n.12

Satanic Verses (Rushdie), 64

satellites, data gathered by, 30-31

Saussure, Ferdinand de, 48

Schaffner, Ingrid, xixn.3, xixn.6

Schank, Roger C., 207n.34

schizophrenia, 179n.33; Venice as manifestation in experience of condition of, 154-55

Schleiner, Anne-Marie, 265

Schneiderman, Ben, 205n.1

Schumacher, Iwan, 85n.21

Science and Sanity (Korzybski), 234

Seaman, Bill, xvii, 140n.12, 140n.15, 178n.24

search engines, code of, xi

Searching for My Mother (Ivekovic), 108

Searle, John, 196

Secret Life of Numbers, The (Levin), 106-8

Sehati, S., 38n.33

Sekula, Alan, 115, 120n.15

self, the: databasing, x; technology of, 203

self-organization, 203, 204

Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm, 104, 245-46

self-representation, collaborative systems enabling, 168-73

Seltzer, Sue Willie, 180n.45

semantic interpretation of Pockets Full of Memories, 246

semiotics of database, 47-51

server access, 97-98

SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), 31

set theory, 126-27

Shapiro, Stuart C., 206n.8

Shavelson, Lonny, 174, 182n.69

Shaw, Jeffrey C., 45, 189, 206n.16

Shklovsky, Viktor, 200, 202, 209n.64

Shlesinger, Michael F, 141n.35

Shoah Foundation, 43

Showplace (Bodies INCorporated), 17

Sidner, Candace, 208n.55

SIGGRAPH, 216

Silicon Graphics Reality Monster, 130

Silverman, Brian, 178n.15

Simon, Herbert A., 189, 206n.16, 206n.18

Simpson, Jake, 214, 226, 229n.6

simulation, immersive training, 213; See also game engines as embedded systems

situated action, 195

Skinner, B. F., 206n.12

Slator, Brian M., 207n.38

Slippery Traces (Legrady), 104-6

Smith, Linda B., 141n.35

smooth space, 127

Snelson, Kenneth, 19

Snow, David, 230n.12

Soba, Stephen, 268n.1

social aesthetics, 159-64: combining database aesthetics with, 168-73; as "style-less," 163-64

social classification, 168-70

social constructionism, 179n.29

Social Security numbering system, 26

social systems, 149; of identification, 26-27

Social Technologies Group (STG) at UC Berkeley, xvii-xviii

SoftSub (C5), 116-17

software, open-source vs. proprietary, 38n.32

software art, 261-68

software "plug-ins," 53

Sol, Selena, 95, 108n.1

Solaris (Lem/Tarkovsky), xix, xxn.11, 269

something given, data as, 142-43, 148

SOM (Self-Organizing Map) algorithm, 104, 245-46

Sonderauftrag (Special Assignment) Linz, xiii

sorting data, 70-73

space: cyber-polysemic, 138-39; dialogic, collaborative systems as, 150; smooth, 127; striated, 127

space junk, 31

Spacewar (computer game), 211-12

Spaeth, Juergen, 248n.1

spatialized database, 55

Spencer, Henry, 237-38

Speusippus, 51

Spielberg, Steven, 43

Spielberg Holocaust Oral History Project, 68

Spitzer, Victor M., 35n.5

Stafford, Barbara Maria, 35n.4, 71, 84n.14

stained-glass windows of Sainte-Chapelle, 151, 153-54, 179n.32

Stairs-Munich-Projection, The (installation), 55

Stalbaum, Brett, 120n.7

Staphylococcus aureus, 5

Star, Susan Leigh, 139n.1

Steinberg, Leo, 111, 120n.6

Steinheider, Brigitte, 247, 248n.1

Sterne, Laurence, 89

Stillman Projects (Jevbratt), 116

Stimpson, Catherine R., 165, 181n.55

stock market: ecosystm to represent global fluctuations in, xix, 99, 100, 260-68; Synthia Stock Ticker as personification of, 99, 249, 251-52

Stock Market Skirt (Paterson), xviii, 99, 233-42: conception and development of, 238-41; as cyberfeminist work, 233; description of, 235-36; as tele-robotic project, 234-35

Stonewall, 230n.15

storage media, database form intrinsic to, 51

stories, data, 117-18

striated space, 127

Strips (Young), 164

Stryker, Beth, 117

subject function, 149

subjective approach to problem of beauty, 143

subjectivity: system-dependent and systemic in autopoetic systems, 146; universal, Kant's theories of, 197

sublime state, 192

Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, 68

Svilova, Elizaveta, 56

Sweeney, Tim, 230n.15

Swidler, Ann, 220, 229n.10

Swift, Graham, 75

Swift, Jonathan, 52

symbolic AI, 194-95, 196, 197, 200

symbolic form, database as, xvi, 39-60: data and algorithm, 41-44, 45; database and narrative, xv-xvi, 44-47, 67-68, 100-101; database cinema, 54-58; database complex and, 51-53; database logic and, 39-41; semiotics of database, 47-51

Synergistics, 19

syntagm and paradigm, semiological theory of, 48-51, 57

Synthia Stock Ticker (Hershman-Leeson), 99, 249, 251-52

system(s), 145; autopoetic, 146-48; cellular automata, 147-48, 149; closed, 145; database as, 95-98; defined, 145; dynamic, 145; emergent, 147-48, 149; open, 145; social, 26-27, 149; See also collaborative systems

Szegedy-Maszak, Zoltan, 248n.1



tactile matrix interface, Polar as, 269-77

Talbot, William Henry Fox, 51

Tarkovsky, Andrei, xix, xxn.11, 269

technological convergence, 233-34

technology: embodying, 259; of self, 203; sources of artists' fear of new, xiii

"Technology (does not equal) Art" (Paterson), 236

teleology: artificial intelligence as Kantian endeavor and, 190-91; neo-Encyclopediaist work turning away from, 195

telepresence, 253

tele-robotic projects, 234-35

Tempest (arcade game), 265-66

tensegrity, 19-20

Terminals (Vesna and Samaras), 16

TextArc (Paley), 101-2, 103, 104

theater, Medea Project, 167-68, 181n.58, 182n.71

Thelen, Esther, 141n.35

Thompson, Ken, 212

Thompson, Kristin, 58n.4

Thousand and One Nights, The, 61-64, 65, 144, 166

Thousand Plateaus, A (Deleuze and Guattari), 127, 128-29, 140n.17, 204

3D game engines, 214; functional and aesthetic resemblance between titles using, 223-25; polygons vs. passes per polygon, 214-15

Three Standard Stoppages (Duchamp), 132

"Throw of Dice Will Never Annul Chance, A" (Mallarme), 123

Tibetan sand mandala, 33-35

time: databases and, 21-22; mutability of sensed, 130-31

Time Capsule (Kac), xvii, xviii, 27, 114-15, 253, 255-57, 255-59, 259

time lines, absence in, 90

Timm, Jennifer, 81

Tobey, Mark, 37n.20

Toffoli, Thomaso, 147, 178n.18

Tom Jones (Fielding), 91

Total Information Awareness project, 114

"Toward a Field Theory for Post-Modern Art" (Ascott), 134

training simulation, immersive, 213

transcendental phenomenology, 196

Tresvita v3.2 software, 147

Truscott, Tom, 237

Turing, Alan, 198-99, 208n.57

Turing Test, 198-99

Turkle, Sherry, 206n.13

201: A Space Algorithm (McCoy and McCoy), 104

2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 104

Tzara, Tristan, 131



uncanny aesthetic, artificial intelligence and, 199-201

uncertainty fields, 145-46

uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's, 145, 178n.12, 178n.13

unifying functions, 143-45

U.S. Department of Defense, 193, 237; Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 237

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 258

universal subjectivity, Kant's theories of, 197

university museums, 37n.31

UNIX operating system, 212; Usenet and, 237

Unreal Tournament (computer game), 226

Unreliable Archivist, The (Cohen, Frank, and Ippolito), xvi, 111, 112

"Unwritten Novel, An" (Woolf), 89

Usenet, 236-38

user-friendly, commonsensical interface design, 183-87

User's Guide to Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Deviations from Deleuze and Guattari, A (Massumi), 134

UTZOO, 237

UUCP, 238



Valentine, J. S., 38n.33

Vardi, M. Y., 208n.55

Varela, Francisco J., 146, 178n.16

variability of new media, principle of, 45-46

Vatican to Vegas, The (Klein), 91

V-Chip, 8

Veered Science, 8, 36n.7

Velvet Strike, 265

Venice as found system, 151, 154-55

Venter, J. Craig, 35n.1

Verbauwhede, Ingrid, 141n.30

Vertov, Dziga, 56-58, 59n.26, 69, 84n.11

very large-scale conversations (VLSC), 184, 186, 201, 203

Vesna, Victoria, 7, 36n.15, 114, 202-3, 209n.74

"Video: The Aesthetics of Narcissism" (Krauss), 52

Video Collection (Andujar), 113

Vidler, Anthony, 201, 209n.61

Viewpoint Datalabs, 13

virtual architecture, 135

Virtual Concrete (Vesna), 8-12: "corporate takeover" by Bodies INCorporated, 14

virtual museums, 40

virtual world generator. See World Generator/The Engine of Desire, The (Seaman and May)

Visible Human Project, 5-6: Datamining Bodies inspired by, 18; representation of male body on Web site, 6

visitors to Polar, experience flow of, 273-74

Visual Human Project, 8, 10, 14

visual identity of Pockets Full of Memories on, 246-47

visualization of data: creating systems for, 33; real-time data streams, 99-100

Visualization Portal at UCLA, 130

visual languages supported by composite organization of image, 47-48



WAD files for Doom, 226

Waldby, Cathy, 6, 36n.6

Waldrop-Fruin, Noah, 118

Walker Center in Minneapolis, New Media Initiatives at, xvi

Wardrip-Fruin, Noah, 120n.20

Warhol, Andy, xii

Warner, Sara, 180n.42, 181n.59, 182n.71

Watson, James, 4

Wattenberg, Martin, 99, 106, 107, 109n.6

WaxWeb (Blair), 45

Web. See World Wide Web

Web browsers, 254

Web pages as collections, 41

Webstalker, 99

Wegener, Paul, 209n.60

Weibel, Peter, 17

Weil, Benjamin, xixn.4

Weinbren, Grahame, xv, xviii, 78, 84n.15, 85n.19

Weinstein, Michael A., 140n.13

Wells, H. G., 28, 30

Wenger, Etienne, 208n.51

"What Is an Author" (Foucault), 143-44

Whitehead, Gregory, 132, 140n.13

Whitlock, David G., 35n.5

Whitney, John Sr., 53, 58

Whorf, Benjamin L., 230n.12

"Who's Who by Size" (Cranston), 25

Why Do Things Get in Muddle? (Come On Petunia) (videotape), 76

Wiener, Norbert, 206n.12

Wikipedia, 120n.4, 177n.3

Wikipedia/Wikimedia Foundation, 30

Wilkins, Maurice, 4

Wilks, Yorick A., 207n.38

Willats, Stephen, 149, 178n.23

Wilson, Fred, 118-19, 120n.21

Winkler, Fabian, 141n.30

Winograd, Terry, 206n.11, 208n.55

Winzen, Matthias, xixn.3, xixn.6

Wireless Imagination (Kahn and Whitehead), 132

Wisniewski, Maciej, xvi, 99

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 133, 138, 139, 141n.28, 208n.57

Wolf, George, 137

women: Gee's Bend quilters, 160-63, 164; Media Project: Theater for Incarcerated Women, 167-68, 181n.58, 182n.71; Public Secrets to give voice to incarcerated, 168, 171-72, 173; role in Turing's imitation game, 199

Woolf, Virginia, xv, 88, 89, 93n.2

Work-Clothes Strips (George), 163

World Brain (Wells), 28

World Game (Fuller), 24

World Generator/The Engine of Desire, The (Seaman and May), xvii, 123, 126-39: exploration of levels and qualities of granularity in, 128; fields of meaning, 134-36; generator paradigm, 130; mutability of sensed time, 130-31; toward a new linguistics, 136-37; physical-digital linkage, 133-34, 138; relevance of the cut-up method, 131-33; resonance in, 128; rhizomatic functioning of, 128-29; set theory and, 126-27; smooth and striated space in, 127; states of media, 129-30

World Resources (Fuller), 24, 25

WorldUp, 261

World Wide Web: antinarrative logic of, 41; as one among many protocols available online, 254; primacy of word over image challenged by, 30; seen as both promise and threat, 8; structural model for, 68; Web browsers, 254; Web pages as collections, 41; as window to collective effort of digitization, 28; See also Internet

Wright, Will, 42

writing, cut-and-paste approach to, 72-73, 74, 75

Writing Culture (Clifford and Marcus), 159

Wynecoop, Shelly, 106, 107



Xanadu (Nelson), 28



Yang, Shenglin, 141n.30

Yates, Francis A., 140n.9

Young, Annie Mae, 164

Youngblood, Gene, 53, 59n.21



Zimbardo, Phillip G., 230n.12

Zimmerman, Philip, 8

ZKM in Germany, 130

Zorns Lemma (film), 69-70

Zurich Capital Markets (ZCM), 260, 263-64